The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus. A special magnifying device with a light, called a colposcope, can be used to visually examine the cervix and vagina.
Colposcopy is usually done when a:
This procedure can be used to:
Complications are rare. But, no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have colposcopy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications. These may include:
In the 24 hours before the procedure, your doctor may advise you to avoid:
Usually no anesthesia is needed. In certain cases, the cervix may be numbed with a local anesthetic.
A device called a speculum will be inserted into the vagina. The speculum will gently spread apart the vaginal walls. The inside of the vagina and the cervix will be easier to see. The colposcope will be placed at the opening of the vagina. Then, the cervix will be wiped with a solution. The solution will make abnormal areas easier to see. The cervix and vagina will be examined closely with the colposcope. A long tool may be used to take a sample of tissue from the cervix or vaginal wall.
This procedure is usually painless. If a biopsy is taken, you may feel a slight pinch and mild cramping.
When you return home after the procedure, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery if you had a biopsy done:
Results from a biopsy should be ready in about one week. The results will determine whether you need more testing or treatment.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Practice Bulletin No. 140: management of abnormal cervical cancer screening test results and cervical cancer precursors. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(6):1338-1367.
Cervical cancer—colposcopy. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/diagnosis-tests/colposcopy.html. Updated October 2017. Accessed December 13, 2017.
Colposcopy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq135.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20121219T1514556583. Updated April 2015. Accessed December 13, 2017.
Last reviewed December 2017 by Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.