Hypernatremia happens when there is an imbalance in the amount of water and sodium in the body—too little water for the amount of sodium.
The main cause of hypernatremia is having more water leave your body than enter it. This causes dehydration. A person can become dehydrated in different ways, such as:
Hypernatremia is more common in older adults. Other factors that may increase your chance of hypernatremia include:
Hypernatremia may cause:
Untreated hypernatremia can be fatal.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. You will be asked about your fluid intake and urine output. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Liquids can be given by mouth or IV to balance the fluids in your body. The fluid will contain a specific concentration of water, sugar, and sodium. Reintroducing fluids slowly into your body will lower the sodium to a normal level. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you.
You may also be given medication to treat nausea.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
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Hypernatremia - approach to the patient. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T910373/Hypernatremia-approach-to-the-patient. Updated August 19, 2016. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Hypernatremia. Merck Manual Professional Edition website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/electrolyte_disorders/hypernatremia.html. Updated April 2016. Accessed January 4, 2018.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116727/Nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus. Updated June 7, 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Last reviewed December 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.