Genetic factors do play a role in obesity, but you can generally prevent obesity with a healthful diet and regular exercise.
Recommendations for a healthful diet change periodically as research evolves—and fads come and go. Current dietary recommendations can be found at the US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services, which outlines dietary guidelines for Americans.
Consult your doctor or a dietitian about an appropriate number of calories for you to eat each day. Ask for ideas that will help you maintain a healthy weight or lose weight if necessary.
If you have special dietary needs because of a medical condition, consult with your doctor. Ask for a referral to a registered dietitian for more personalized help.
Other factrors that can contribute to developing healthy eating may include:
Factors to consider in children
Exercise burns calories, takes your mind off eating, and helps prevent a number of medical conditions. It also increases your metabolic rate long after you are done exercising, which helps you to burn more calories throughout the day, even when you are at rest.
Regardless of your weight and health status, there is an exercise program that will work for you. Talk to your doctor or a qualified exercise professional about working physical activity into your daily life. This may include walking more on your errands, going to the gym, or taking up activities such as biking, swimming, dancing, golf, or tennis. You do not have to be an athlete to stay in shape. If you are not used to exercise, aim for a moderate intensity of physical activity, but do it regularly.
Adults should aim for 150 minutes per week and children for 60 minutes per day.
Consider counseling or behavior therapy if you feel that stress or emotions are playing a role in your eating habits. Obesity is often associated with unhelpful thought patterns related to your social image and frustration with attempts to lose weight. Often these thoughts can be a barrier to success. Consider counseling if you think such attitudes stand in your way.
Behavior therapy may help you understand:
Sleep is very important for good health, especially in children. Studies have found that shorter sleep duration in children has been associated with increased risk for obesity. Ten-year-olds should be getting at least nine hours of sleep every night, and five-year-olds should be getting at least 11 hours of sleep. On weekends and holidays, many children and teens want to sleep late to make up for their lack of sleep during the school week. Studies have found that this extra sleep may reduce your child's risk of being overweight or obese.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines. Accessed February 23, 2017.
Obesity. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional-disorders/obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome/obesity. Update December 2016. Accessed February 23, 2017.
Obesity in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115009/Obesity-in-adults. Updated November 20, 2016. Accessed February 23, 2017.
Obesity in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115153/Obesity-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated January 30, 2017. Accessed February 23, 2017.
Screening and prevention. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/prevention. Updated February 23, 2017. Accessed February 23, 2017.
Tips for parents—ideas to help children maintain a healthy weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/children/. Updated July 6, 2016. Accessed February 23, 2017.
12/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115153/Obesity-in-children-and-adolescents: Wing YK, Li SX, Li AM, Zhang J, Kong AP. The effect of weekend and holiday sleep compensation on childhood overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):e994-e1000.
Last reviewed February 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.