A seizure is a sudden change in behavior. It is caused by sudden, abnormal, and excessive electrical activity in the brain. A neonatal seizure occurs in newborn babies.
Seizures may be severe or mild. They may cause physical changes like convulsions. It may affect only part of the body or the entire body. A short seizure itself does not cause serious health conditions. Prolonged seizures can lead to permanent damage. The damage is due to decreased oxygen and excessive brain cell activity.
A seizure may be a symptom or side effect of a more serious health condition. If your child has a seizure your doctor will want to find out what caused it.
There are a variety of causes of seizures in children, which include:
Sometimes seizures occur for unknown reasons.
Factors that may increase your child's risk of having a seizure include:
Seizure symptoms may include:
If you suspect your child is having a seizure, act quickly:
You will be asked about your child‘s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may be done to look for the cause of the seizure.
Your child's bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your child's brain. This can be done with:
You child's brain activity may be tested. This can be done with an EEG.
Treatment for the seizures depends on the cause of the seizures. Some seizures will not require treatment. If the seizure is caused by an underlying condition, the doctor will create a plan to treat that condition. Resolving the underlying condition will likely stop the seizures.
Referral to a pediatric neurologist may also be needed.
Anticonvulsant medication can help to prevent seizures. The medication that is used will depend on the type of seizure. These medications do have some side effects. As a result, they are often only used for severe or frequent seizures.
Medications are not usually prescribed for febrile seizures. These seizures are associated with a rapid increase in temperature due to a fever. Children will outgrow these seizures by about 5 years of age. They are rarely associated with long term problems so anticonvulsant medication is rarely recommended.
Some severe seizures may be treated with brain surgery. This may occur in some children with epilepsy. During this type of surgery certain nerve fibers may be separate or a section of the brain may be removed. This surgery may help to reduce or eliminate seizures. Surgery is not done very often.
Medication, if recommended, can usually prevent seizures. It is important to take anticonvulsant medication as needed.
Febrile seizures are may be the first sign of a fever. This can make it difficult to prevent. Another seizure may happen when a fever is present in the future. The doctor may advise medication to keep fever down whenever the child gets sick.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Febrile seizure. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113623/Febrile-seizure. Updated August 9, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Hogan T. Seizure disorders in childhood. Loyola University Medical Education Network website. Available at: http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedED/pedneuro/epilepsy.htm. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Neonatal seizures. Intensive Care Nursery Staff House Manual. UCSF Children's Hospital website. Available at: https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/pdf/manuals/48_Seizures.pdf. Published 2004. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Seizure in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T550165/Seizure-in-children. Updated June 21, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.