Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that begins during pregnancy and usually resolves after the baby is born.
During pregnancy, placental hormones (growth hormone, prolactin, cortisol, placental lactogen, progesterone) are produced that can block the effectiveness of insulin, leading to a relative insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body convert food into energy. Without insulin, glucose from the food you eat cannot enter cells, and glucose builds up in the blood.
In most women, the pancreas increases insulin production enough to offset this resistance. When the pancreas fails to keep pace, gestational diabetes occurs. In addition to causing problems for the mother, the excess glucose in the blood can cross the placenta and cause problems for the baby.
Complications for women with gestational diabetes mellitus include an increased chance of:
Complications affecting the fetus or infant include:
Children whose mothers had gestational diabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
If you have gestational diabetes, maintaining good control over your glucose levels during pregnancy significantly reduces the risk of complications to you and to your baby.
Gestational diabetes. National Instutute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/types/gestational. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116237/Gestational-diabetes-mellitus-GDM. Updated June 29, 2017. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Hillier TA, Pedula KL, et al. Excess gestational weight gain: modifying fetal macrosomia risk associated with maternal glucose. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1007-1014.
2/5/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116237/Gestational-diabetes-mellitus-GDM. Cheng YW, Chung JH, et al. Gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus: perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1015-1022.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
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