If you are at risk of developing heart failure, you can take steps to prevent it by adhering to the following recommended lifestyle guidelines:
Excess weight can put a strain on the heart muscle, which can eventually lead to heart failure. If you are overweight, talk with your doctor about how you can adopt a sensible eating plan that will enable you to lose weight gradually and maintain your weight at the desired level.
Consider consulting with a dietitian who can help you with meal planning and portion sizing.
Smoking immediately increases your heart rate and blood pressure, while reducing oxygen circulation. This adds extra strain on your heart. Talk with your doctor about the best ways to help you quit. Avoid secondhand smoke when possible. Quitting smoking reduces your heart rate and blood pressure within minutes.
Making dietary changes can help to lower your risk of heart failure. Dietary changes include eating more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts. It also includes substituting bad fats for good fats. This means eating more mono- or polyunsaturated fats, and less saturated and trans fats. Bad fats raise your cholesterol levels, which clog arteries and make your heart muscle work harder.
Here is a list of foods to avoid:
Consider talking with a dietitian who can help you with meal planning and easy substitutions for heart healthy alternatives.
High blood pressure is a major cause of heart failure. In addition, people with poorly controlled blood pressure run twice the risk of developing heart failure compared with those who have normal blood pressure. High blood pressure causes the heart muscle to work harder to push blood through constricted vessels. Dietary changes, regular exercise, and medications can help you control your blood pressure. If you are being treated for high blood pressure, adhere to the treatment plan outlined by your doctor.
Too much sodium has been linked to high blood pressure. Aim for sodium levels less than 2,300 mg per day. Read food labels to find the hidden sodium in your diet in addition to limiting use of table salt.
The DASH diet is a plan designed to help reduce blood pressure.
To help reduce your risk of developing heart failure, aim to moderate your alcohol intake. This means a maximum of two drinks per day for men, and a maximum of one drink per day for women. Be aware that alcohol also may react with certain medications you may already be taking for other conditions.
For people who have not yet developed heart failure, regular aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, using a stationary bike, or treadmill is recommended. Generally, it is recommended that you exercise at least 30 minutes per day on most days of the week. If you have a sedentary job, it may be beneficial to aim for 60 minutes of exercise a day. Overall, exercise will strengthen the heart muscle and lower blood pressure.
Talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.
DASH diet. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T170319/DASH-diet. Updated April 29, 2016. Accessed September 15, 2017.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion website. Available at: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines. Updated December 2015. Accessed September 15, 2017.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114099/Heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction. Updated September 1, 2017. Accessed September 15, 2017.
Heart failure screening and prevention. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T474271/Heart-failure-screening-and-prevention. Updated August 11, 2017. Accessed September 15, 2017.
How can heart failure be prevented? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/prevention. Updated November 6, 2015. Accessed September 15, 2017.
Treatment options for heart failure. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/PreventionTreatmentofHeartFailure/Prevention-Treatment-of-Heart-Failure_UCM_002048_Article.jsp#.Wbwdk7KGNxA. Updated May 9, 2017. Accessed September 15, 2017.
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12/9/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115449/Dietary-considerations-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention. Bao Y, Han J, Hu FB, et al. Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(21):2001-2011.
12/15/2016 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113884/Physical-activity-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention. Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 2016;388(10051):1302-1310.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.