Fallopian tubes are tubes that lead from the ovaries to the uterus. A tubal ligation is a sterilization procedure to close the tubes.
Tubal ligation is done to prevent pregnancy. If you have this surgery, you will still ovulate and menstruate. The cut or blocked tubes keep the egg and sperm separated. When the egg and sperm cannot meet, fertilization does not happen and pregnancy cannot occur.
This surgery is not recommended as a temporary or reversible procedure. Make sure you and your partner consider all the birth control options.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Potential problems include:
Some factors that may increase the risk of problems include:
A physical exam and pregnancy test will be done.
Leading up to your procedure:
You may receive 1 of the following:
A small cut will be made in the area of the navel. A harmless gas will then be inserted through this cut and into your abdomen. The gas will inflate the abdominal cavity. This will make it easier to view the internal organs. A long, thin instrument called a laparoscope will be inserted. It will contain a small camera and lighting system, which will let the doctor see inside the abdomen. A second cut may be made just above the pubic hair to insert an instrument for grasping the fallopian tubes. The tubes will be closed in 1 of the following ways:
The instruments will then be removed and the openings will be closed with stitches.
In some cases, the doctor may switch to an open surgery. This involves making a larger incision.
You will be brought into the recovery room. You will rest there until the anesthesia wears off. You may receive pain medication.
Anesthesia will keep you comfortable and pain free during the procedure. You may feel bloated and have pain in your shoulder or chest because of the air inserted into your abdomen. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
Call your doctor if any of the following occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical help right away.
Office on Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services
Canadian Women's Health Network
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Peterson HB. Sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:189-203.
Sterilization for women and men. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq011.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130422T1556422204. Updated August 2011. Accessed February 24, 2016.
Sterilization for women (tubal sterilization). Planned Parenthood website. Available at: http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/sterilization-women-4248.htm. Accessed February 24, 2016.
Tubal sterilization. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115331/Tubal-sterilization. Updated January 8, 2016. Accessed October 10, 2016.
Tubal sterilization. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/sex-birth-control/birth-control/tubal-sterilization.html. Updated July 2010. Accessed February 24, 2016.
6/3/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115331/Tubal-sterilization: Mills E, Eyawo O, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
Last reviewed March 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.