The brain and spinal cord are covered by layers of tissue. These layers are called the meninges. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord.
Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection. It is a medical emergency, requiring immediate treatment. Depending on the severity of the infection, it can result in death within hours.
Bacterial meningitis can be caused by many different bacteria. Severity of the infection depends on the type of bacteria causing it and the overall health of your immune system.
The bacteria usually passes through direct contact with oral or respiratory secretions from someone who is infected.
Bacterial meningitis is more common in infancy and childhood. For adults, the risk increases as you age. Other factors that may increase your chance of getting bacterial meningitis include:
Classic symptoms can develop over several hours or may take 1-2 days:
Other symptoms may include:
In newborns and infants, symptoms are hard to notice. As a result, infants under 3 months old with a fever are often checked for meningitis. Symptoms in newborns and infants may include:
Complications of bacterial meningitis include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
More than 90% of all people with this infection survive with immediate care, including:
Antibiotics are given through an IV. This is started as soon as the infection is suspected. The antibiotics may be changed once tests find the exact bacterial cause. People usually stay in the hospital until the fever has fallen and the fluid around the spine and the brain is clear of infection. This may require a hospital stay of several days.
These are usually given by IV early in treatment, but are generally used for specific causes of meningitis. Corticosteroids control brain pressure and swelling. They also reduce the body’s production of inflammatory substances. This treatment can prevent further damage. Specifically, it reduces the risk of hearing loss and neurological complications.
Fluids can be lost due to fever, sweating, or vomiting. They may be replaced through an IV. It will be done carefully to avoid complications of fluid overloading.
To help reduce your chance of getting bacterial meningitis:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Meningitis Foundation of American
Meningitis Research Foundation of Canada
Bacterial meningitis in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115577/Bacterial-meningitis-in-adults. Updated September 26, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Bacterial meningitis in infants and children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T566506/Bacterial-meningitis-in-infants-and-children. Updated September 26, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Bamberger D. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(12):1491-1498.
Lumbar puncture (LP). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T168500/Lumbar-puncture-LP. Updated September 11, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Meningitis and encephalitis information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis_meningitis/detail_encephalitis_meningitis.htm. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Meningococcal disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/meningococcal/about/index.html. Updated March 28, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Weisfelt M, de Gans J, van der Ende A, van de Beek D. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients. PLoS One. 2010;5(2):e9102.
10/2/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115577/Bacterial-meningitis-in-adults: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for revaccination of persons at prolonged increased risk for meningococcal disease. MMWR. 2009;58(37):1042-1043.
4/22/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115577/Bacterial-meningitis-in-adults: Lee CC, Middaugh NA, Howie SR, Ezzati M. Association of secondhand smoke exposure with pediatric invasive bacterial disease and bacterial carriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2010;7(12).
1/2/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance httphttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115577/Bacterial-meningitis-in-adults: Zalmanovici T, Fraser A, et al. Antibiotics for preventing meningococcal infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD004785.
Last reviewed January 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.