A concussion is an injury to your brain that causes problems with how the brain works. It can affect brain tasks like memory, balance, concentration, judgement, and coordination.
Most will have a full recovery, but the brain will need time to heal with the proper rest and monitoring.
A concussion is caused by a sudden, violent jolt to the brain. The force can cause stretching and tearing to the brain and soft tissue that support it. Forces that can cause this type of damage include:
Factors that may increase your chance of a concussion include:
Concussions most often occur with:
A concussion can cause symptoms that may last for days, weeks, or even longer. They may be immediately present or appear a few hours or days after the injury. The symptoms that develop will depend on the severity of the injury. More common symptoms are listed below.
Physical symptoms may include:
Mental and emotional symptoms may include:
A doctor should be consulted if serious symptoms like confusion and vomiting occur or if symptoms get worse.
Young children may not be able to clearly communicate symptoms. Talk to a doctor if the child has had a head injury and is showing any of the following symptoms:
You will be asked about your symptoms and how the injury occurred. Others who witnessed the accident may also be asked to describe what happened and how you reacted. A physical exam will be done. It will often include brief tests for strength, sensation, balance, reflexes, and memory. The doctor will often be able to diagnose a concussion based on the exam and history.
A CT scan may be done if there are severe symptoms or certain risk factors but are not always needed.
The brain can usually heal on its own with some rest and avoiding activities that may be harmful while it heals. Normal activities can be resumed when tolerated and if advised by the doctor. Strenuous physical activity and sports participation may be resumed depending on the severity of your concussion and individual symptoms. Symptoms will gradually fade during recovery.
There may be cognitive problems after a concussion that can make mentally-demanding tasks more difficult. Early in recovery, activities that need concentration like work or schoolwork may be difficult. Also, consider reducing video games, watching television, computer activities, or texting.
Increase mental and physical activities gradually as recommended by your doctor based on how you feel. Symptoms, balance, cognition, and tolerance to current activity levels may be tested throughout recovery.
The brain is more vulnerable to injuries while it is healing. Re-injury can lead to more severe or long-term symptoms. Precautions should be taken with:
Second head injury can be especially dangerous in children and adolescents (second impact syndrome). Even a mild second head injury in children and adolescents can lead to serious damage to the brain. This can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
A closed head injury is often the result of an accident which can be difficult to prevent. To decrease the chance of severe injuries during an accident:
To prevent accidents at home that can lead to concussions:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Brain Injury Association of Canada
Ontario Brain Injury Association
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116529/Concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury. Updated October 9, 2017. Accessed February 7, 2018.
Halstead ME, Walter KD, Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--sport-related concussion in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2010 Sep;126(3):597-615. full-text
Kirkwood MW, Yeates KO, Wilson PE. Pediatric sport-related concussion: a review of the clinical management of an oft-neglected population. Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1359-1371.
Pearce JM. Observations on concussion: a review. Eur Neurol. 2008;59(3-4):113-119.
Sports-related concussion information for athletes. Wesleyan University Athletic Injury Care website. Available at: http://athletics.wesleyan.edu/Performance_-_Care/concussions. Updated January 2007. Accessed February 7, 2018.
Traumatic brain injury and concussion. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/index.html. Updated February 9, 2016. Accessed March 16, 2017.
What can I do to help feel better after a mild traumatic brain injury? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/recovery.html. Updated January 22, 2016. Accessed February 7, 2018.
10/5/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116529/Concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury: Parikh SN, Wilson L. Hazardous use of car seats outside the car in the United States, 2003-2007. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):352-357.
12/10/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116529/Concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury: Bakhos LL, Lockhart GR, Myers R, Linakis JG. Emergency department visits for concussion in young child athletes. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):e550-556.
2/21/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116529/Concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury: Grool AM, Aglipay M, et al. Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2016 Dec 20;316(23)2504-2514.
Last reviewed February 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.