Diabetes can damage the nerves of the legs and feet. This may make it difficult to feel a blister or sore. If you don't care for a sore it may become larger and infected.
Diabetes also can cause problems with blood flow. Poor blood flow can make it difficult to heal.
The ulcer itself is usually caused by:
Factors that may increase your chance of diabetic foot ulcers include:
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your primary doctor may refer you to a foot specialist.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
The sooner a diabetic foot ulcer is treated, the better the outcome. Treatment options include the following:
Good wound care is important to help the ulcer heal and prevent infection. Make sure to clean the wound regularly. Change the dressings often to prevent infection.
Constant pressure on the ulcer can make it difficult to heal. Pressure can be taken off the area with a special cast or boot. These will take the pressure off of the foot, but still make walking possible.
Infected ulcers can raise high blood glucose levels. High blood glucose levels can then lower the body's ability to fight infections. The high level also keeps the wound from healing.
Improved blood glucose control will help fight any infections and heal the wounds. This control is often done with adjustments in diet or medications. Sometimes insulin shots are needed in the short-term.
Smoking can slow healing and should be avoided.
Wear proper footwear. Make sure it fits well.
Some large skin ulcers may have a hard time fully healing even with the treatments above. They may need a patch of skin to help close the wound. This process is called a skin graft. Bioengineered skin graft or human skin graft may be used.
If the ulcer is infected, antibiotics may be prescribed. They may need to be taken for 4-6 weeks. Do not skip doses. Finish the medication as directed.
Your doctor may also recommend a growth stimulating medication to place on the ulcer. The medication may help speed healing.
Dead tissue can build up inside and around the wound. This tissue will slow or prevent healing and increase risk of infection. Surgery may be needed to remove the dead tissue and clean the wound. This surgery is called debridement.
Bypass surgery may be needed to improve blood flow to the legs. This surgery uses healthy blood vessels to carry blood past areas of unhealthy blood vessels. The improved blood flow may help with wound healing.
Sometimes an infection is too severe or does not respond to treatment. As a last resort, amputation surgery may be needed. This is the removal of a body part to stop the infection from spreading to the rest of the body.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may help with healing. This therapy is delivered in a chamber. Pure oxygen is pumped into the chamber. This helps to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. The extra oxygen can improve healing.
Another option to help speed healing is using negative pressure wound therapy. A vacuum device and dressing are used to create negative pressure on the wound. This can help the wound heal faster.
To help reduce your chance of diabetic foot ulcers:
American Diabetes Association
American Podiatric Medical Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association
Bakker K, Apelqvist J, et al; International Working Group on Diabetic Foot Editorial Board. Practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot 2015. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Jan;32 Suppl 1:2-6. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2694.
Diabetic foot ulcer. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114270/Diabetic-foot-ulcer. Updated July 19, 2017. Accessed September 19, 2017.
Markakis K, Bowling FL, Boulton AJ. The diabetic foot in 2015: an overview. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Jan;32 Suppl 1:169-78.
Ndip A, Bowling F, et al. The diabetic foot in 2013: an update from the 14th Malvern Diabetic Foot Meeting. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2013 Mar;12(1):71-5.
Nelson EA, O’Meara S, et al. Systematic review of antimicrobial treatments for diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2006;23(4):348-359.
2/7/2008 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114270/Diabetic-foot-ulcer: Armstrong DG, Holtz-Neiderer K, et al. Skin temperature monitoring reduces the risk for diabetic foot ulceration in high-risk patients. Am J Med. 2007;120(12):1042-1046.
2/7/2008 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114270/Diabetic-foot-ulcer: Lavery LA, Higgins KR, et al. Home monitoring of foot skin temperatures to prevent ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(11):2642-2647.
4/8/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114270/Diabetic-foot-ulcer: Löndahl M, Landin-Olsson M, Katzman P. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes and chronic foot ulcer. Diabet Med. 2011;28(2):186-190.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.