Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is the rhythmic repetition of body movements called stereotypies. These movements are usually harmless or may result in self-harm or social challenges.
SMD often starts around age 3 years. It may occur by itself or with other conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
It is not clear what causes SMD. Some children with SMD have family members who had SMD when they were young, so there may be a genetic link for some.
SMD may also be associated with neurological conditions or brain injuries in some children. Not all children with SMD have brain injury though.
SMD is more common in boys.
Factors that may increase a child’s risk of SMD include:
Symptoms are common in children aged 3-5 years of age, but it may last longer in some children. Stereotypic movements have the following features:
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. Understanding the movements, what starts them, and what makes them stop will help the doctor to determine if it is SMD or other disorders that cause similar movements. A physical exam will be done. Psychological testing will also be done.
Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan. In some cases, SMD fades over time. Minor movements that do not cause problems may not need treatment. Movements that impact social function or cause self-harm will need to be treated. Options include:
The movements are easily stopped with distraction. Therapist- or home-based behavioral therapy can help a child recognize patterns and reduce or stop movements with positive reinforcement.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may also be used to change patterns of thinking that are unproductive and harmful. However, it may not be helpful in very young children.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Canadian Pediatric Society
Disorders of childhood: Stereotypic movement disorders. MentalHelp.net website. Available at: https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/disorders-of-childhood-stereotypic-movement-disorder/. Published February 4, 2008. Accessed July 6, 2017.
Primary (non-autistic) motor stereotypies. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/pediatric-neurology/conditions/motor-stereotypies/index.html. Accessed July 6, 2017.
Your child’s stereotypies. Evelina London website. Available at: http://www.evelinalondon.nhs.uk/resources/patient-information/your-childs-stereotypies.pdf. Updated August 2016. Accessed July 6, 2017.
Last reviewed August 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.