Bronchospasm is a reversible narrowing of the airways in response to a stimulus. Bronchospasm is not a diagnosis.
Reactive airway disease is a term that may be used for a one-time event or until a more specific diagnosis can be made.
Reactive airway disease symptoms are caused by bronchospasm, an increased sensitivity of the airways to certain triggers such as allergens, infections, cold air, or chemicals. These triggers cause a tightening of the muscles around the airway. At the same time, the lining of the airways swells and produces excess mucus. All of these reactions narrow the airways and make it difficult to breathe.
It is not clear what causes the tissue to overreact. It may be a combination of factors, including environment, genetics, and biology.
If the condition lasts more than 6 months, it may be called asthma. Other causes, such as viral bronchiolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pertussis, or cystic fibrosis may be diagnosed based on further testing.
Factors that may increase your child’s risk of bronchospasm include:
Bronchospasm may result in:
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be asked about possible triggers that were around when your child developed symptoms.
Further testing may be done to look for or confirm the presence of allergies or other pulmonary issues. Tests may be done to look for pneumonia, viral infection, smoke inhalation, and chemical exposure.
Treatment options include:
Medications may be used to prevent symptoms or treat a flare up. Options include:
Some of these medications may be delivered with an inhaler or a machine that makes a medicated mist.
The doctor will help to find what is triggering the bronchospasm. If possible, the triggers will be eliminated or managed to stop future flare ups. Steps will depend on the specific triggers but may include:
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatricians
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
Asthma and reactive airway disease (RAD) (wheezing). Nationwide Children’s website. Available at: http://www.nationwidechildrens.org/asthma-and-reactive-airway-disease-rad-wheezing. Updated February 2016. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Asthma in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T500326/Asthma-in-children. Updated April 6, 2016. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Reactive Airway Disease in Children. Boys Town National Research Hospital website. Available at: https://www.boystownhospital.org/knowledgeCenter/articles/EarNoseThroat/Pages/rad-in-children.aspx. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Reactive Airway Disease in Children. Kaiser Permanente website. Available at: https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/health/care/consumer/health-wellness/conditions-diseases/he2/!ut/p/a1/hc7BboJAEAbgp-GoM4BS7A1tBKSgbU2lXJoFRiCuuwTWEvv0BeuhTdo4t8l88-eHBGJIBPuoCqYqKRgf9sR6X65e1vO57qDrekv0vQdXD3TXQNuCHSTQC_xnHBzuPyPWk5mNfrjwFn4UILrGFWwc9O0Qpzo6poW-tTWDuzDS0Z1cAZr-03eJjYW9DbbB6ywwEQ1YQVJwmV76vpVK1fcaaphJoUiohkRODTVaX4XLjHGCmMTo1N7CTJ3r3pbEuCpHJLJzxmVNecVufZZdlUN82tto4GAdkZp2AUlD-4GMT03fdAhoLwld140LKQtO40wetT9fStkqiH9LiDx5JKgPh2fv85F2tpqmZ7P7AmEp7Vo!/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/. Updated March 25, 2017. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.