A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland. It produces hormones that help regulate your body’s metabolism. It is located on the front of the neck, right below the Adam’s apple. Goiters are seldom painful. They tend to grow slowly.
There are different types of goiters. This sheet focuses on nontoxic (or sporadic) goiter. It is a type of simple goiter that may be:
The development of nodules marks a progression of the goiter. It should be evaluated by your doctor.
The exact causes of nontoxic goiter are not known. In general, goiters may be caused by too much or too little thyroid hormones. There is often normal thyroid function with a nontoxic goiter. Some possible causes of nontoxic goiter include:
The following factors increase your chance of developing nontoxic goiter:
If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:
Nontoxic goiters usually do not have noticeable symptoms, unless they become very large. If you experience any of these, do not assume it is due to this condition. These may be caused by other, less serious health conditions. If these symptoms persist, see your doctor.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may recommend a specialist. An endocrinologist focuses on hormone related issues.
Tests may include the following:
Nontoxic goiters usually grow very slowly. They may not cause any symptoms. In this case they do not need treatment.
Treatment may be needed if the goiter grows rapidly, affects your neck or obstructs your breathing.
If a nontoxic goiter progresses to the nodular stage, and the nodule is found to be cancerous, you will need treatment. Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Thyroid hormone medication is used to suppress secretion of thyrotropin (TSH). TSH is the thyroid-stimulating hormone that causes growth. This therapy is most effective for early stage goiters that have grown due to impaired hormone production. It is less effective for goiters that have progressed to the nodular stage.
Radioactive iodine treatment is used to reduce the size of large goiter. It is used in the elderly when surgical treatment is not an option.
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
The American Thyroid Association
The Hormone Foundation
Thyroid Foundation of America
Canadian Family Physician
Thyroid Foundation of Canada
Bonnema SJ, Bennedbek FN, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:112-117.
Bonnema SJ, Nielsen VE, et al. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trail. J Clin Endo Metab. 2007;92:3424-3428.
Diehl LA, Garcia V, Bonnema SJ, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter in Latin America: comparison with North America and Europe, an electronic survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:117-123.
Freitas JE. Therapeutic options in the management of toxic and nontoxic nodular goiter. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 2000;30:88-97.
Hurley DL, Gharib H. Evaluation and management of multinodular goiter. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1996;29:527-540.
Kasper DL, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Kim Carmichael, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.