Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of disorders that leads to scarring, called fibrosis, in the lung tissue. It affects the space around the small air sacs of the lung.
All ILD disorders affect this particular area of the lung. However, the progression of diseases and the other parts of the lungs that may be affected are unique to each disorder.
Injury or illness can cause inflammation in the lungs and airways. Inflammation stimulates a process to rebuild injured tissue. With ILD, this inflammation and tissue building does not stop. Over time, the excess tissue building leads to fibrosis in the lungs. The fibrosis makes it difficult for oxygen to pass from the lung tissue to the blood vessels in the lungs. This decreases the amount of oxygen available to the body.
The inflammation and tissue building process may begin or go unchecked because of:
Sometimes, the exact reason for the abnormal tissue building process is unknown.
The risk of ILD increases with age. Other factors that may increase your chance of ILD include:
The most common symptom of ILD is shortness of breath that worsens with time. Breathing problems occur with activity and at rest.
ILD may also cause:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may suspect ILD based on this information.
To determine how well your lungs are working, your doctor may do the following tests:
To confirm a diagnosis or determine the reason for scarring, a tissue sample may be removed from the lungs and closely examined. Images of the lungs and chest cavity may also be taken with:
If you are diagnosed with ILD, pulmonary function tests can help determine how much your breathing is affected.
Treatment depends on the cause of ILD. The goal of treatment is to slow progression of the disease. Damage to the lungs is permanent and cannot be reversed, but treatment will help to ease symptoms and improve quality of life.
Treatment will be based on your specific condition and symptoms. General approaches include:
Medications can help to slow the progression of ILD. Options include:
Oxygen therapy will eventually be needed. It will help to make up for decreased amount of oxygen passing to the bloodstream. Oxygen therapy increases the amount of oxygen in the lungs which increases the amount of oxygen that gets into your blood.
Pulmonary rehabilitation helps you manage shortness of breath. Rehabilitation is tailored to your needs but may include:
Learning to live with a chronic disease can be a difficult process. You may benefit from psychological counseling that can help you better manage your life. Counseling can be individual or in a group.
If you smoke, your doctor will advise you about the most effective programs to help you quit.
A lung transplant may be necessary if ILD has progressed or is advanced. It is generally not considered unless other treatment methods fail.
Not all ILDs can be prevented. To help reduce your exposure to substances associated with some ILDs:
American Lung Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation
The Lung Association
Explore pulmonary rehabilitation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pulreh. Updated August 1, 2010. Accessed March 8, 2016.
Interstitial lung disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900225/Interstitial-lung-disease. Updated March 14, 2016. Accessed October 3, 2016.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD). British Lung Foundation website. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/interstitial-lung-disease-ild. Accessed March 8, 2016.
Overview of interstitial lung disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/interstitial-lung-diseases/overview-of-interstitial-lung-disease. Updated April 2013. Accessed March 8, 2016.
Schraufnagel DE. Chapter 10: Interstitial lung disease. American Thoracic Society website. Available at: https://www.thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-10-interstitial-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed March 8, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review BoardJames Cornell, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.