Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a set of symptoms caused by the shingles virus. The virus infects a specific set of nerves that affect the ear, mouth, skin, and muscles of the face, neck, and scalp. The virus is the same virus that causes chickenpox.
The chickenpox virus remains in the body, even after the illness has passed. In some, this virus can reactivate and cause shingles, an infection that causes inflammation along certain nerves.
With Ramsay Hunt, the infection affects a specific set of facial nerves that can affect the ear, mouth, face, neck, and scalp.
Factors that may increase your chance of Ramsay Hunt syndrome include:
Ramsay Hunt syndrome may cause:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A diagnosis can often be made based on history and physical exam.
Lab tests may need to be done to confirm shingles or identify other infectious causes.
Treatment for milder symptoms is usually not needed. For moderate or severe symptoms medication may be needed to reduce the intensity or duration of symptoms. Options include:
Other treatments are based on the symptoms that are present. Eye care may be needed if the infection is making it difficult to completely close your eyes.
The herpes zoster vaccine may decrease the likelihood of getting shingles, including Ramsay Hunt syndrome.
The vaccine is recommended for most people aged 50 years and older. It is important to note that people with a weakend immune system have a higher risk of developing shingles.
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke
Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation
Herpes zoster. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113997/Herpes-zoster. Updated September 19, 2016. Accessed October 3, 2016.
Herpes zoster oticus. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. Available at: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/gard/7525/herpes-zoster-oticus/case/28741/case-questions. Accessed May 31, 2016.
Information. Ramsay Hunt website. Available at: http://www.ramsayhunt.org/info. Accessed May 31, 2016.
NINDS herpes zoster oticus information page. National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ramsay2/ramsay2.htm. Updated February 14, 2011. Accessed May 31, 2016.
Shingles (herpes zoster). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/shingles/about/index.html. Updated January 10, 2011. Accessed May 31, 2016.
Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71(2):149-154.
Last reviewed May 2016 by David Horn, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.