A baby who is small for gestational age (SGA) has a significantly lower weight than other babies of the same gestational age. Gestational age is the number of weeks into pregnancy.
If parents have small stature, the baby may be small. These babies have normal development but are just small compared to others their age.
SGA sometimes occurs if there are growth and development problems before birth. These may occur with:
Parents with small stature increase the risk of SGA.
Maternal factors that can affect a baby’s growth during pregnancy include:
Other factors that can affect baby’s growth include:
Symptoms of SGA include a birth weight that is in the lowest 10% of babies with of the same gestational age.
A baby with SGA is often diagnosed before birth based on measurements taken of the mother’s abdomen, the mother’s weight, and size of the uterus (womb). If the measurement is low for the number of weeks of pregnancy, then the baby may be smaller than average. SGA may also be diagnosed at birth based on the baby’s weight and height.
Images may be taken during pregnancy with an ultrasound.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. A baby with SGA is at higher risk for problems, such as difficulty feeding, blood sugar abnormalities, and breathing problems. Your baby’s health and development will be monitored closely.
Babies that have SGA due to lack of nutrition or oxygen may need treatment. Options include:
Before your baby is born, the doctor may:
SGA due to family traits, syndromes, and uterine abnormalities cannot be prevented.
If you are thinking of becoming pregnant, taking a supplement containing folic acid may reduce the risk of having a small for gestational age baby.
To help reduce your baby’s chance of getting SGA due to nutrition and oxygen problems during birth, take these steps during pregnancy:
American Pregnancy Association
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Canadian Paediatric Society
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115648/Intrauterine-growth-restriction-IUGR. Updated September 13, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); Small for gestational age (SGA). American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancycomplications/iugr.htm. Updated August 2015. Accessed November 24, 2015.
Small for gestational age. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/hrnewborn/sga.html. Accessed November 24, 2015.
Small for gestational age babies. Patient UK website. Available at: http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/small-for-gestational-age-babies. Updated May 28, 2013. Accessed November 24, 2015.
Small for gestational age introduction. The MAGIC Foundation website. Available at: http://www.magicfoundation.org/www/docs/111. Accessed November 24, 2015.
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3/17/2015 DynaMed’s Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115648/Intrauterine-growth-restriction-IUGR: Hodgetts V, Morris R, et al. Effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on reducing the risk of small-for-gestational age neonates: a population study, systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2015 Mar;122(4):478-490.
7/7/2016 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115648/Intrauterine-growth-restriction-IUGR: Pamidi S, Marc I, et al. Maternal sleep-disordered breathing and the risk of delivering small for gestational age infants: a prospective cohort study. Thorax. 2016 Apr 15.
7/15/2016 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115648/Intrauterine-growth-restriction-IUGR: Saccone G, Berghella V, Sarno L, et al. Celiac disease and obstetric complications: a systematic review and metaanalysis. 2016;214(2):225-234.
Last reviewed July 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.