Periodontitis is an advanced form of gum disease. It can cause destruction of the supportive structures around your teeth and lead to permanent tooth loss.
Untreated periodontitis can be serious and lead to complications such as:
Bacteria grow on your teeth and create a filmy coating called plaque. A build up of this plaque causes an inflammation of the gum tissue, known as gingivitis. If gingivitis is left untreated, the plaque can extend under the gum line can create pockets around the teeth. Bacteria can collect in these pockets and cause regular inflammation and destruction known as periodontitis. Over time, this chronic inflammation and bacteria cause destruction of gum tissue, ligaments, and bones that hold your teeth in place.
Poor oral hygiene including untreated gingivitis increases the risk of periodontitis.
Other factors that can increase bacteria or plaque in your mouth include:
Periodontitis normally occurs without symptoms. In those that have symptoms, periodontitis may cause:
Your dentist will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A complete oral exam will be done. Periodontal disease can be diagnosed during an oral exam. Your dentist may do x-rays to determine how much damage has been done.
The goal of treatment is to stop the bacterial invasion. Further course of treatment depends on the severity and progression of the periodontitis.
Talk to your dentist about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
A cleaning procedure called scaling and root planing is done first. These will remove excess build-up above and below the gum line, and along the tooth root where bacteria thrive. In some cases, lasers can be used to remove plaque.
Your dentist may recommend antibiotics to treat any bacterial infection. Antibiotics may be given as:
You may need surgery if your periodontitis doesn’t improve with deep cleaning or antibiotic treatment. Surgery may be also necessary to repair damaged gum tissues and bones. Surgical procedures include:
To help reduce your chance of periodontitis:
Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association
Perio—American Academy of Periodontology
Canadian Dental Association
Public Health Agency of Canada
Periodontal (gum) disease: Cause, symptoms, and treatment. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/GumDiseases/PeriodontalGumDisease.htm. Updated August 2012. Accessed November 6, 2013.
Periodontitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 22, 2013. Accessed November 6, 2013.
Treatments. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/consumer/treatments_procedures. Accessed November 6, 2013.
What is gum disease? Academy of General Dentistry Know Your Teeth website. Available at: http://www.knowyourteeth.com/infobites/abc/article/?abc=G&iid=324&aid=1251. Updated January 2012. Accessed November 6, 2013.
What is periodontal disease? American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/patient-resources. Accessed November 6, 2013.
5/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nibali L, Tatarakis N, et al. Clinical review: Association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(3):913-920.
7/13/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Yaacob M, Worthington HV, et al. Powered versus manual toothbrushing for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD002281
Last reviewed December 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.