Anemia is a low level of red blood cells (RBCs). These cells are responsible for picking up oxygen in the lungs and delivering it to the rest of the body. Low levels of RBCs make it difficult for the body to get enough oxygen. If anemia is severe, it can lead to serious health problems.
Anemia of prematurity occurs in babies who are born earlier than expected.
Anemia of prematurity may be caused by one or more of the following conditions:
Infants are more prone to anemia because:
Other factors that may increase the chances of anemia of prematurity include:
Mild anemia may have no symptoms. Symptoms of moderate or severe anemia may include:
You will be asked about your baby’s symptoms and history. A physical exam will be done.
Your baby's blood will be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
A diagnosis will be made based on the blood test. The test results may also help find the cause of the anemia.
Treatment will depend on the cause of anemia. Mild anemia may not need to be treated. The doctor will simply monitor your baby’s blood. As little blood as possible will be taken to keep the anemia from getting worse.
Treatment options for anemia of prematurity include:
Nutrition plays a big role in the recovery from anemia. The right foods can help the baby’s body increase production of RBCs.
Lack of certain nutrients can also make it difficult for the body to make RBCs. Iron is important in making RBCs. When your baby is a few weeks old, supplemental iron may be added.
Erythropoietin is a hormone in the body. It encourages the body to make more RBCs. Supplemental erythropoietin may be given to babies with or at risk for anemia. It will gradually help the body make more RBCs.
This treatment is often given in addition to nutrition changes.
Severe cases of anemia may need immediate treatment. A blood transfusion will quickly increase the level of RBCs in the infant.
More than 1 transfusion may be needed.
To help reduce your child’s chance of getting anemia of prematurity:
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Kids Health—Nemours Foundation
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Anemia of Prematurity. The Hospital for Sick Children website. Available at: http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/ResourceCentres/PrematureBabies/OverviewofTreatment/TreatmentofOtherConditions/Pages/Treatment-of-Anemia-of-Prematurity.aspx. Updated October 31, 2009. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Evaluation and management of Premature Infants. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116613/Evaluation-and-management-of-the-premature-infant. Updated June 27, 2016. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Neonatal Anemia. UCSF Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/pdf/manuals/37_Anemia.pdf. Published 2004. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Trachtenbarg D, Golemon T. Office Care of the Premature Infant: Part II. Common Medical and Surgical Problems. Am Fam Physician. 1998 May 15;57(10):2383-2390. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2383.html. Accessed Sptember 16, 2015.
What is Anemia of Prematurity? Greenwich Hospital website. Available at: http://www.greenhosp.org/upload/docs/FactSheets/English/pediatric_anemia-premeturity.pdf. Updated April 2006. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.