Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a deterioration of the brain. It is caused by the buildup of a protein called tau. The brain damage caused by CTE can lead to severe mental and physical disabilities. The condition gets worse over time.
Researchers have a found a link between repetitive head injuries and CTE. The head injury may involve:
Over time, these injuries can lead to abnormal groups of tau proteins. These proteins can create tangled masses in the brain. The tangles can block normal brain function. Similar tangles are seen in people with Alzheimer’s disease.
Having a history of head injuries puts you at risk for CTE later in life. People who may be at the highest risk include those who:
The symptoms may develop many years after the head injuries.
Your doctor will:
To gain more information about your brain and to rule out other conditions, your doctor may order tests, such as:
At the present time, the only way to clearly diagnose CTE is for a doctor to examine the brain after a person has died. This is how researchers are learning more about CTE.
Treatment for CTE is an area that is being studied. Depending on your symptoms, though, your doctor may recommend:
You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in head injuries.
When playing sports, you can reduce your risk of CTE by:
Other steps that you can take to reduce head injuries off the field include:
Boston University Center for Traumatic Brain Injury
Sports Legacy Institute
Brain Injury Association of Alberta
Ontario Brain Injury Association
Blast anatomy—chronic traumatic encephalopathy in military vets. Alzheimer Research Forum website. Available at: http://www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=3159. Published May 18, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Sports Legacy Institute website. Available at: http://www.sportslegacy.org/cte-concussions/what-is-cte/. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Kowall N. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and its connection with ALS. US Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.va.gov/RAC-GWVI/docs/Minutes_and_Agendas/Minutes_Nov2010_AppendixA_Presentation7.pdf. Published November 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
LaVecchia F. Traumatic brain injury. Indian Health Service website. Available at: http://www.ihs.gov/suicidepreventionsummit/documents/TraumaBrainInjuryLaVecchiaPresentation.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2012.
McKee A, Cantu R, Nowinski C, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy following repetitive head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009; 68(7):709-735.
Moderate to severe traumatic head injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated April 5, 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Navarro R. Protective equipment and prevention of concussion—what is the evidence. Sports Physical Therapy Section website. Available at: http://www.spts.org/assets/files/CSMR%20Concussion%20equipment.pdf. Published 2011. Accessed May 29, 2012.
NINDS Encephalopathy information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalopathy/encephalopathy.htm. Updated November 9, 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Prevention: What Can I do to Help Prevent Concussion and other forms of TBI? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/prevention.html. Updated May 16, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Traumatic brain injury: hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/detail_tbi.htm#193693218. Updated May 14, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
What is CTE? Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy website. Available at: http://www.bu.edu/cste/about/what-is-cte/. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Last reviewed August 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.