Pectus excavatum is an abnormal inward curve to the breastbone. It may be visible at birth. Growth through adolescence can make the indentation of the chest more apparent. It may continue until it has created a bowl-shape dent in the center of the chest.
Severe forms can create extra pressure on the heart and lungs. This can lead to more serious health problems like shortness of breath and limited physical activities.
The exact cause of pectus excavatum is not known. Some theories include:
Pectus excavatum may also be caused by conditions that affect connective tissue or chest structure, such as:
Risk factors include:
Complications from pectus excavatum tend to increase with age due to bone growth and a decrease in the flexibility of the bones.
Pectus excavatum is characterized by an indentation in the front of the chest wall. It may be mild or deep enough to form a bowl shape.
If the indentation is severe enough to affect the heart or lungs you may also have:
A person with this condition may not have any symptoms during childhood. But as the person grows into an adolescent, he may have symptoms because of of a more pronounced indentation in the chest wall.
Your doctor will:
Your doctor will often be able to diagnose pectus excavatum after a physical exam.
Additional tests may be done to find out if your heart or lungs are affected. These tests may include:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
Surgery may be considered if you:
The ideal age for this type of surgery is 7-14 years. But surgery can also be successful in adults, as well. There are two main surgical options:
This surgery involves incisions in the front of the chest. The surgeon will be able to see your breastbone. Some cartilage will be removed from your breastbone and nearby ribs. The surgeon will place the breastbone in its proper position. A metal strut and mesh will be used to support the new position. The metal strut may come out in 6-12 months.
Small incisions are made on either side of the chest. The surgeon will place a metal bar through the incisions and secure it under the breastbone. This bar will push the breastbone into a better position. This bar will remain in the chest for 2-3 years. This will allow the chest time to remodel itself.
American Pediatric Surgical Association
American Surgical Association
Canadian Association of General Surgeons
Goretsky MJ, Kelly RE Jr, Croitoru D, Nuss D. Chest wall anomalies: pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum. Adolesc Med Clin. 2004;15(3):455-471.
Jaroszewski D, Notrica D, McMahon L, Steidley E, Descahmps C. Current management of pectus excavatum: a review and update of therapy and treatment recommendations. J Am Board Fam Med. 2010;23(2):230.
Mavanur A, Hight DW. Pectus excavatum and carinatum: new concepts in the correction of congenital chest wall deformities in the pediatric age group. Conn Med. 2008;72(1):5-11.
Pectus excavatum. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114889/Pectus-excavatum. Updated February 19, 2016. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Pectus excavatum. McMaster Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.hamiltonhealthsciences.ca/documents/Patient%20Education/PectusExacavatum-lw.pdf. Accessed May 17, 2012.
Last reviewed July 2012 by J. Thomas Megerian, MD, PhD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.