High blood pressure is a blood pressure measurement that is higher than normal. Blood pressure is the force of blood on the blood vessel walls. It is measured as two numbers, for example 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). These two numbers stand for:
For adults, 120/80 mmHg is considered a normal reading. Children’s blood pressure readings are lower than adults. Their blood pressure is based on a child’s gender, age, and height. This means that what is considered normal or high blood pressure changes as your child grows.
Blood pressure can be split into two categories:
Risk factors can vary depending on the type of high blood pressure, for example:
High blood pressure usually does not cause any symptoms. In some cases, though, your child may:
Your child’s blood pressure is measured at least once per year after your child turns three years of age. An arm cuff and a special device are used to take the reading. The doctor then uses a chart to find which percentile your child is in. This chart is based on your child’s gender, age, and height.
If a reading suggests high blood pressure, your child’s blood pressure will be measured several more times, including one taken at home. This is done in part to eliminate something called "white coat syndrome." Some children can feel very anxious when seeing the doctor. This can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. The average reading will be used to make the diagnosis.
To find out if your child has an underlying condition, the doctor will ask about your child’s medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may also order tests, such as:
The doctor may also check for other related conditions (eg, high cholesterol, diabetes, or other endocrine diseases).
The doctor will work with you and your child to create a treatment plan.
If your child has an underlying condition, this will be treated. Treating the underlying condition may help the high blood pressure return to normal.
Other treatment may focus on making lifestyle changes, such as:
If your child’s blood pressure is not improving after trying these lifestyle changes, the doctor may consider prescribing medicine, such as:
It is important to properly treat high blood pressure to prevent complications in adulthood, such as:
Take these steps to help prevent your child from developing high blood pressure:
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Blood pressure levels for boys by age and height percentiles. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/child_tbl.pdf. Accessed November 10, 2015.
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High blood pressure in children. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/High-Blood-Pressure-in-Children_UCM_301868_Article.jsp. Updated August 8, 2014. Accessed November 10, 2015.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115345/Hypertension. Updated August 29, 2016. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Hypertension in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900113/Hypertension-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated August 14, 2016. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Kellicker P, Schub T. Evidence-based care sheet: hypertension in children and adolescents. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/pointOfCare/nrc-about. September 16, 2011. Accessed June 19, 2012.
NHLBI integrated guidelines for pediatric cardiovascular risk reduction. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated February 12, 2013. Accessed November 10, 2015.
Last reviewed November 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.