A peanut allergy occurs when the body responds abnormally to peanuts. The reaction may range from mild to life-threatening. Even a very small amount of peanuts can lead to a serious reaction.
This condition may be serious. It requires care from a doctor.
The allergy occurs when your body is exposed to peanut proteins. The body mistakes the proteins as harmful substances, and the immune system releases chemicals into the bloodstream, which causes symptoms.
Coming in contact with peanuts can occur by:
Peanut allergy, like other food allergies, is more common in children. Other factors that may increase your chance of a peanut allergy include:
Peanut allergy may cause:
Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis may cause:
If you have a serious allergic reaction or are with someone who does, call for emergency medical services or go to the nearest emergency room right away.
You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in allergies. The doctor will:
Tests may include:
The doctor may ask you to keep a food diary. This means you will write down your experiences with food, such as your eating habits and symptoms. This may help the doctor find out what food(s) may be causing your allergies.
The doctor may put you on an elimination diet to learn which foods may be triggering an allergic reaction. If your doctor thinks you might be allergic to peanuts, you may be asked to remove peanuts from your diet for 1-2 weeks then add them back to your diet to see if you experience any symptoms. The elimination diet is only done under a doctor’s supervision.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
The best treatment is to avoid peanuts, foods containing them, and foods that may have been exposed to them. Always read ingredient labels, even if you do not think the food contains peanuts. Most food labels will state whether the factory where a food was made also processes peanuts. If offered homemade foods, always ask about the ingredients to check for the presence of peanuts or peanut oil.
If you do have a mild allergic reaction, you may be able to take antihistamines to reduce symptoms, like itching or hives. Talk with your doctor about medications that are right for you.
For severe allergic reactions, you may need to inject yourself with epinephrine. Epinephrine is injected using an auto-injector (EpiPen, Twinject), which contains a syringe, needle, and a dose of the the medication. You inject the medication into your thigh. You should carry an auto-injector with you at all times.
For any severe reaction, call for emergency medical services or go to the nearest emergency room right away.
If you are pregnant and do not have a peanut allergy, you may want to consider consuming peanuts to lower the risk that your child will have a peanut allergy.
To help reduce your chance of a reaction to peanuts:
Here are some foods that may contain peanuts or may have been made in factories that process peanuts:
The list may be endless. This is why it is very important to be aware of what you are eating or come in contact with. Even the smallest amount of peanut protein can trigger a life-threatening response.
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Food Allergy Research and Education
Allergy Asthma Information Association
Calgary Allergy Network
Food allergy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 31, 2014. Accessed August 25, 2014.
Lee CW, Sheffer AL. Peanut allergy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2003;24(4):259-264.
Mayo Clinic Staff. Peanut allergy. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peanut-allergy/basics/definition/con-20027898. Updated June 27, 2012. Accessed August 25, 2014.
Nut and peanut allergy. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/kid/stay_healthy/food/nut_allergy.html. Updated October 2011. Accessed August 25, 2014.
Peanut allergy. American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology website. Available at: http://www.acaai.org/allergist/allergies/Types/food-allergies/types/Pages/peanut-allergy.aspx. Accessed August 24, 2014.
Peanut allergy. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America website. Available at: http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&sub=20&cont=517. Accessed August 25, 2014.
Peanut allergy. The Food Allergy Research and Education website. Available at: http://www.foodallergy.org/allergens/peanut-allergy. Accessed August 25, 2014.
1/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Frazier A, Camargo C, et al. Prospective study of peripregnancy consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by mothers and the risk of peanut or tree nut allergy in their offspring. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Dec 23.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Marcin Chwistek, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.