Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. In cancer, cells become abnormal and grow out of control. As the number of abnormal blood cells increase, the healthy blood cells are outnumbered. There are three main types of blood cells. Each has a distinct job:
Leukemia cells cannot do the job of normal blood cells. This causes many of the symptoms of leukemia. The disease starts in the bone marrow where blood cells are made. The most common types of leukemia in children are:
Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Normally, cells divide in a regulated manner. If cells keep dividing uncontrollably when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms, called a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues. Cancer that has invaded nearby tissues can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but it is probably a combination of genetics and environment.
Factors that may increase your child's chance of leukemia include:
Leukemia may cause:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor will check for swelling of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Leukemia can be diagnosed by identifying abnormal blood cells in:
Imaging tests may be done to look for infections or injuries caused by leukemia including:
Symptoms created by leukemia may need to be treated first. Treatment may include:
Treatment that targets the leukemia itself may one or a combination of the treatments below:
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells. May be used alone or with other treatments like radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy is directed to a specific area to kill the cancer cells. May be used alone or with chemotherapy.
High doses of radiation and/or chemotherapy can destroy immature healthy blood cells. Transplantation will help the body build healthy cells again. Transplant options may include bone marrow or stem cell transplantation.
In bone marrow transplantation, the marrow may be removed, treated to kill cancer cells, and frozen. After treatment, the bone marrow is placed back into the body. The marrow may also be provided from a healthy donor. The marrow with leukemia will be removed and the donated marrow will be delivered after treatment.
Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation uses immature cells that are found in the blood. These cells are removed from the blood before chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Once treatment is done, the stem cells are then placed back into the blood. The immature cells will grow into healthy white and red blood cells.
American Cancer Society
The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
Canadian Cancer Society
Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Acute myeloid leukemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 17, 2013. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Childhood cancers. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/childhoodcancers. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Childhood leukemia. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003095-pdf.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society website. Available at: http://www.lls.org/diseaseinformation/leukemia. Accessed June 19, 2013.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.