Chemotherapy and targeted therapy are used to treat pancreatic cancer. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy pancreatic cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body to the cancer cells. Targeted therapy uses medications to attack or block specific factors that help cancer cells grow.
Chemotherapy may be used:
For pancreatic cancer, radiation therapy is most often used in combination with chemotherapy.
There are a variety of chemotherapy drugs. Chemotherapy regimens for pancreatic cancer have been found to work better when drugs are combined. The choice and combination of drugs will be based on your particular cancer and reaction to drugs. Chemotherapy drugs for pancreatic cancer may include:
Chemotherapy is most often given through an IV, but some forms can be given by mouth. It is delivered in cycles over a set period of time. A medical oncologist will determine how many cycles of chemotherapy are needed and what combination of drugs will work best.
Though the drugs are designed to target cancer cells, they can affect healthy cells as well. The death of cancer cells and impact on healthy cells can cause a range of side effects. A medical oncologist will work to find the best drug combination and dosage to have the most impact on the cancer cells and minimal side effects on healthy tissue. Side effects or complications from chemotherapy may include:
Unlike chemotherapy, targeted therapy drugs attack cancer cells without harming healthy cells. Presently, erlotinib is the only targeted therapy drug used on pancreatic cancer. It is designed to block a specific protein that makes the tumor grow. Erlotinib is given in combination with the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine.
Common side effects include:
A variety of treatments are available to help manage side effects including medication, lifestyle changes, and alternative treatments. In some cases, the chemo- and/or targeted therapy regimens may be adjusted to reduce severe side effects. The earlier the side effects are addressed, the more likely they will be controlled with a minimum of discomfort.
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De La Cruz MD, Young AP, Ruffin MT. Diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(8):626-632.
Pancreatic cancer. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114527/Pancreatic-cancer. Updated July 6, 2016. Accessed March 23, 2017.
Pancreatic cancer. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/tumors-of-the-gi-tract/pancreatic-cancer. Updated January 2017. Accessed March 23, 2017.
Treatment option overview. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/pancreatic/patient/pancreatic-treatment-pdq#section/_162. Updaed December 23, 2016. Accessed March 23, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.