Magnesium is an essential mineral that has a hand in many vital body functions, for example releasing energy, building protein, and stabilizing bone. It is also one of several nutrients that helps keep blood pressure within a healthy range. And since magnesium is plentiful in vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, it is easy to consume enough if you are eating healthy food.
Magnesium's functions include:
Recommended Dietary Allowance
(AI) = 30
|AI = 30|
|7-12 months||AI = 75||AI = 75|
|Pregnancy (18 years or younger)||n/a||400|
|Pregnancy 19-30 years||n/a||350|
|Pregnancy 31-50 years||n/a||360|
|Lactation (18 years or younger)||n/a||360|
|Lactation 19-30 years||n/a||310|
|Lactation 31-50 years||n/a||320|
Magnesium deficiency is rare because most people have large stores of this mineral in their body. However, it can be caused by diseases or medications that interfere with the body's ability to absorb magnesium. Symptoms of a magnesium deficiency include: irregular heartbeat, nausea, confusion, depression, tingling, weakness, loss of appetite, and muscle contractions and cramps.
Conditions and medications that may lead to a magnesium deficiency include:
It's also possible to get too much magnesium. The Office of Dietary Supplements publishes tolerable upper intake levels for magnesium.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
|Pregnancy (18 years or younger)||n/a||350|
Magnesium toxicity through food intake is not a concern for most healthy people. However, people with kidney disease may develop toxicity because the kidneys are responsible for regulating the level of magnesium in the blood. Also it is possible to take too much magnesium in supplements. Symptoms of magnesium toxicity include:
Magnesium is found in a variety of foods. The best sources are legumes, nuts, whole grains, and certain vegetables. "Hard" water (which is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium) is also a source of magnesium.
Foods that provide high levels of magnesium include:
Greater magnesium intake is associated with a lower incidence of high blood pressure. This is the finding of a few large clinical studies. One of these, the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) study found that a diet high in magnesium, potassium, and calcium and low in sodium and fat can significantly lower blood pressure. You can get these nutrients by eating a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods.
Based on the growing number of studies showing a positive role for magnesium in managing blood pressure, the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends maintaining an adequate magnesium intake to prevent and manage high blood pressure.
Several studies have found links between magnesium status and heart health. Many of these suggest that an adequate intake of magnesium is protective of the heart. However, further study needs to be done to clarify magnesium's role.
Since a significant amount of magnesium is stored in the bones and one of magnesium's roles is to help keep bones healthy, it would make sense that magnesium would help protect bones from the thinning of osteoporosis. Several studies have suggested just that—magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral density. However it is still not clear, and more study needs to be done.
It is easy to meet your magnesium needs through foods. To increase your intake, try some of the following:
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
International Food Information Council Foundation
Dietitians of Canada
Appel L, Moore T, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1117-1124.
Magnesium. Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/. Updated November 4, 2013. Accessed July 15, 2014.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 10, 2014. Accessed July 15, 2014.
The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/. Published December 2003. Accessed July 15, 2014.
Last reviewed July 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.