Addiction is marked by an out-of-control need and craving that affects relationships and social obligations, such as work and school. Prescription medications are drugs given to treat a certain condition. Prescription drug addiction is the compulsive seeking and overuse of prescription medications despite harmful consequences. Some medications have a higher risk of addiction. Even with proper use they are associated with alterations in the pathways in the brain. These pathways influence the senses of reward and well-being which can influence addiction.
Medication abuse is inappropriate use of medication. It may include taking higher doses than recommended, snorting pills, mixing with other drugs and alcohol, or using medication for the wrong reasons (such as using pain medication for sleep). Medication (drug) abuse may only develop because of addiction or the addiction may develop after abuse of a medication.
There are certain prescription drugs that are commonly abused because they are more likely to cause addiction. These drugs include:
The reasons people become addicted to prescription drugs are largely unknown. It is most likely due to a combination of factors. The following may play a role in prescription medication addiction:
Prescription drug addiction is more common in men and people under 30 years old (risk of addiction decreases as age increases). Risk factors for prescription addiction include:
Physical dependence may contribute to the development and continuance of addiction. Physical dependence is when your body needs a drug to function normally. Withdrawal symptoms when the medication is stopped or reduced can be a sign of physical dependence. It can make cessation of drug use difficult. Physical dependence may occur with abuse or with long-term proper use of medications.
The symptoms below are associated with prescription drug addiction. If you experience any one of them, see your doctor.
Let your doctor know if you are having symptoms of physical dependence.
Addiction can be difficult to diagnose. Prescription medication addiction can start with someone who needs frequent medications for a long-term condition like chronic pain. This can make it difficult to distinguish the difference between addiction and medical need.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam may be done. Your doctor will ask specific questions about your prescription medication use and may review your refill history.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Addictions can be treated effectively through detoxification and counseling. Treatment will depend on the type of drug you use and your specific needs.
Treatment options include the following:
This involves managing the symptoms of withdrawal while the medication leaves your system. Some symptoms of withdrawal can be life-threatening. Your medical team will slowly taper you off the drug and monitor your body's reactions.
Other medications may be used to counteract the effects of addiction and withdrawal symptoms. This should be done under the supervision of a doctor in a hospital or other outpatient setting to ensure your safety and effective detoxification.
It is important to follow up with other therapies to avoid relapse.
Behavioral therapies can help. This therapy will help you learn to function without the medication, handle cravings, and avoid situations in which relapse is likely. Behavioral therapy may include individual, group, or family counseling.
Certain medications can be used to treat opiate dependence that may be present with addiction. They may be used during detoxification to reduce withdrawal symptoms. They may also be continued through maintenance to decrease craving and reduce the risk of relapse. They are given as a part of an overall treatment approach including counseling. Common medication options include:
The choice of medication will depend on the drugs involved in the addiction, your medical history, and your recovery commitment.
Other medications may be needed to treat underlying issues, such as depression or anxiety. These medications may help you on your way to a full and productive life as well as prevent relapse.
To help reduce your chance of developing a prescription drug addiction:
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
Drug Rehab Services
Addiction. National Coalition Against Prescription Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://ncapda.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=39&Itemid=45 Accessed May 15, 2012.
Opioid abuse or dependence. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T219069/Opioid-abuse-or-dependence. Updated September 8, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Prescription drugs & cold medicines. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/prescription-drugs-cold-medicinesl. Accessed May 15, 2012.
2/4/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T219069/Opioid-abuse-or-dependence: Schinke SP, Fang L, et al. Computer-delivered, parent-involvement intervention to prevent substance use among adolescent girls. Prev Med. 2009;49(5);429-435.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.