A heart attack is a medical emergency. If you think you are having a heart attack, call for emergency medical services right away.
On the way to, or within minutes of your arrival at the hospital, you will be hooked up to an electrocardiogram (EKG), which monitors your heart's electrical activity. A healthy heart creates a specific pattern on an EKG. A heart attack and heart damage will cause disruptions to this pattern.
Once you get to the hospital, other diagnostic tests will be done to confirm if you had a heart attack. Tests may include:
Blood tests look for markers of a heart attack. Specific substances are found in the blood within hours or days after a heart attack. Blood tests may need to be repeated in order to track the enzymes. Progressive elevation of the enzymes indicates heart cell death and heart muscle damage. Substances include:
Blood tests can also be used to evaluate glucose, electrolyte, and cholesterol levels, as well as blood clotting time.
A coronary CT scan uses an injected dye to detect calcium deposits and cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries. A catheter is threaded through a distant artery to a coronary artery. The injected dye highlights areas where blood flow to the heart is reduced or completely blocked.
If narrowing or blockage is found, it can be relieved with a balloon, stent, or other procedure.
Heart attacks can cause permanent heart damage. Once you are stabilized, it is likely you will have other tests to assess damage or look for any underlying causes of your heart attack. Tests may include:
Acute coronary syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 31, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
How is a heart attack diagnosed? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/diagnosis.html. Updated December 17, 2013. Accessed April 4, 2014.
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 31, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Symtoms and diagnosis of heart attack. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/SymptomsDiagnosisofHeartAttack/Symptoms-and-Diagnosis-of-Heart-Attack_UCM_002041_Article.jsp. Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael J. Fucci, DO
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.