As with any food group, it is important to choose your particular proteins carefully. Some protein-rich foods (like red meat) are high in cholesterol and saturated fats. The harms of these fats may outweigh the benefits of the protein. There are also several very healthy forms of protein, so it is important to choose your protein sources wisely.
Full fat dairy products (whole milk, yogurt, cheese), poultry skin, and many cuts of red meat are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Saturated and trans fats raise blood cholesterol, in particular they raise bad (LDL) cholesterol and lower good (HDL) cholesterol.. A high level of bad cholesterol in the blood is a major risk factor for heart disease, which can lead to heart attacks. Choosing low fat version of meats and dairy products and watching your portion sizes can help reduce this risk without completely eliminating these foods.
On the other hand, plant based proteins, like legumes have very little saturated fat or cholesterol. These are good to incorporate into your diet so that you get enough protein without cholesterol risks.
Fish has less total fat and saturated fat than meat and poultry. Some fish are high in fat, but the fat is mostly omega-3 fatty acids—a type of polyunsaturated fat. Unsaturated fats, both mono and poly, are heart healthy. Omega-3s are believed to help prevent arteries from hardening and to help prevent blood from clotting and sticking to artery walls. Omega-3s may help prevent atherosclerosis and heart attacks.
Dark meat fish contain higher amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. It is important to note that although eating fish has more evidence for benefits, fish oil supplements have not been proven to carry the same benefits.
Evidence indicates that specialized diets may prevent mild hypertension. Both the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the DASH low-sodium diet appear to help blood pressure control.
DASH incorporates low-fat dairy, lean meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and whole grains as part of a well-rounded diet.
The American Heart Association recommends eating no more than 6 ounces cooked (2 servings) per day of fish, shellfish, poultry (without skin), or trimmed lean meat. A typical serving is three ounces, which is about the size of a deck of cards. This is equal to:
In order to get the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, eat at least two servings (1 serving = 3 ounces) of fish per week. Those high in omega-3 fatty acids include:
Certain types of fish may have high mercury levels. If you plan on becoming pregnant, are pregnant, or a nursing mother, avoid shark, swordfish, tilefish and king mackerel. Updates about fish and mercury exposure can be found at the Environmental Protection Agency Fish Consumption Advisories website.
Shellfish can be high in cholesterol that other kinds of fish, so again, make an effort to limit how much you eat.
You can still eat meat, but what the type of meat is an important factor. When eating meats opt for:
Now that you know the kinds of meats that are better for you, don't ruin the healthy choice with heavy cooking methods. These cooking methods are healthier options:
Consider these substitutions in your recipes:
Beans and peas are the mature forms of legumes, which are very versatile. They are also great sources of protein, dietary fiber, and can be counted as a vegetable or a protein serving. Here are some easy ways to add legumes to your daily diet:
Nuts are another plant protein, so toss a handful on vegetables, in stir fry, or in yogurt. They are good for you and the crunch adds extra texture.
Dairy products are an additional source of protein but can also have a lot of saturated fats. If you already eat or drink dairy products, make some changes by using dairy products like low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt or cheese.
It may take some time to get used to, so ease your fat content down slowly. After a short adjustment period, the difference will seem to fade. Find healthy dairy products you enjoy and try different things. Here are some easy ways to make small changes that have big effects:
An egg is an excellent source of protein, B vitamins, and minerals. It is also rich in cholesterol (about 185 mg in one large egg). The cholesterol is only in the yolk of the egg, not the white.
To enjoy eggs without consuming too much cholesterol, make a few substitutions:
Making drastic changes rarely work out. Take a few of these tips and start to work them into your everyday menu. Healthy eating does not have to be boring or exclude all your favorite foods. Watch your portion sizes on foods that are higher in saturated fats and look for ways to substitute healthier proteins or fats in your favorite recipes. You may find the healthier version tastes just as good!
American Dietetic Association
Food and Nutrition
United States Department of Agriculture
Dietitians of Canada
Health Canada Food and Nutrition
Meat, Poultry, and Fish. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Meat-Poultry-and-Fish_UCM_306002_Article.jsp. Accessed November 19, 2012.
DASH Diet. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated Augus 26, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services websites. Available at: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2010/PolicyDoc/PolicyDoc.pdf. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Dietary Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 14, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Eat More Chicken, Fish and Beans Than Red Meat. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/WeightManagement/LosingWeight/Eat-More-Chicken-Fish-and-Beans-than-Red-Meat_UCM_320278_Article.jsp. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Fish Consumption Advisories. US Department of Environmental Protection website. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/mercury/advisories.htm. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB: Fish Intake, contaminants, and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits. JAMA. 2006;296:1885-99
Savica V, Bellinghiere G, et al. The Effect of Nutrition on Blood Pressure. Annual Review of Nutrition. 2010;30:365-401.
The Power of Protein. American Academy of Nutrion and Dietetics Foundation website. Available at: http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442460042&terms=protein. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Tips to Help You Make Wise Choices from the Protein Foods Group. US Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/protein-foods-tips.html. Accessed November 19, 2012.
Last reviewed November 2012 by Brian P. Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.