Your doctor may become concerned if your cholesterol level is too high. Another type of fatty substance found in the blood, known as triglycerides, may also need to be monitored in the effort to prevent heart disease. That is because research has identified high triglyceride levels as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, even when cholesterol levels are normal.
Triglycerides are a form of fat present in food, human body fat, and blood. Blood triglyceride levels are affected by dietary fat and are manufactured in the body from other energy sources, such as carbohydrates. Triglycerides are also stored as body fat.
An elevation of blood triglycerides is referred to as hypertriglyceridemia. The blood test to measure triglyceride levels is easy and can be done along with a routine blood test that also measures various types of cholesterol. The most accurate results are obtained when a person fasts before this test. Triglyceride levels can be quite variable, so several measurements may be needed to provide accurate baseline values.
An elevated triglyceride level can be an independent medical problem or can be due to another existing medical problem. For instance, people with poorly controlled type 1 or type 2 diabetes often have elevated triglyceride levels. Elevated triglycerides can also be brought on by thyroid disorders, kidney problems, obesity, excess alcohol, and taking certain medications.
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) classifies the ranges of fasting triglyceride levels in the following way:
Studies have found that high triglycerides levels may increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions. However, there are steps that you can take to lower your levels.
Here are some tips from the experts:
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Dietitians of Canada
ATP III guidelines at-a-glance quick desk reference. National Cholesterol Education Program website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atglance.pdf. May 4, 2016.
Austin MA, McKnight B, Edwards KL, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality in familial forms of hypertriglyceridemia: a 20-year prospective study. Circulation. 2000;101(24):2777-2782.
High blood cholesterol: what you need to know. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/heart-cholesterol-hbc-what-html. Updated June 2005. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Hypertriglyceridemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 16, 2015. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Physical activity for everyone: how much physical activity do adults need? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adults/index.htm. Updated June 4, 2015. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Triglycerides: frequently asked questions. American Heart Association website. Available at: https://my.americanheart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_425988.pdf. Updated April 15, 2011. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Last reviewed May 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.