No matter what your fitness level, you should give your strength-training program a safety check-up. The best strategy is to hire a qualified, certified personal trainer. Although regular sessions with a trainer can be costly, you can still benefit from one or two sessions. If you're new to strength training, ask to be introduced to exercises and equipment. If you're a veteran, have your form checked.
Experts also recommend following these guidelines:
Never strength train in bare feet. Always wear gym shoes. Wear gloves to prevent your hands from becoming rough and callused and to improve your grip.
Before beginning a strength session, take the time to warm up your body. For example, walk on a treadmill for 5-10 minutes to increase blood flow to your muscles. Next, do some gentle stretching.
Start with light weights that you can lift comfortably for 8-12 repetitions. Increase the weight gradually to the next set of weights. This goes for experienced exercisers, too, who have spent several weeks away from strength training. Get back into your routine slowly.
For example, think two counts up and four counts down.
Know which muscles should be working and which muscles should be stabilizing your body. Also, identify the correct range of motion for each exercise. In a lunge, for example, know whether you should take a small step or a giant step.
With bad posture, you could activate and injure a muscle group that's not supposed to be working. Keep your head and shoulders up, knees unlocked, and shoulders and hips in line. If you can't maintain correct posture, you're either lifting a weight that's too heavy or doing the exercise incorrectly. Check your posture by lifting in front of a mirror.
Take a full breath with every repetition. Avoid holding your breath.
It's normal to experience light soreness in your muscles 24-48 hours after your training. However, deep soreness, especially in the joints, may indicate an injury.
Every muscle has an opposing muscle, such as quadriceps and hamstrings or abdominals and lower back. If you train one muscle, train the opposing muscle to avoid creating imbalances in your body that can lead to injury.
Know where you should adjust your seat and align your joints.
There's greater risk of dropping a weight or over-stretching a joint if you don't have someone to spot you when you work with free weights.
Make sure they have no cuts or tears, keep them out of extreme heat or cold, and secure them well.
When muscles are contracted, they shorten. Stretching lengthens muscles and allows them to release tension. Hold each stretch 10-30 seconds.
Your muscles need the time to rebuild and repair themselves. That goes for abdominal muscles, too.
American Council on Exercise
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology
Dunn-Lewis C, Kraemer W. The basics of starting and progressing a strength-training program. American College of Sports Medicine website. Available at: http://www.acsm.org/access-public-information/articles/2012/01/13/the-basics-of-starting-and-progressing-a-strength-training-program. Published January 13, 2012. Accessed January 16, 2014.
Strength training for women. Women's Heart Foundation website. Available at: http://www.womensheart.org/content/exercise/strength_training.asp. Accessed January 16, 2014.
Warm up, cool down and be flexible. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00310. Updated January 2012. Accessed January 16, 2014.
Last reviewed January 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.