The vertebrae are a series of bones that make up the spine. When one of them fractures, that can put pressure on surrounding nerves. This can cause intense pain and disability. The bones may be repaired with these procedures:
Both procedures are used to decrease pain from osteoporotic or pathologic vertebral compression fractures.
Kyphoplasty also restores the height of the bone. This can decrease the spinal deformity caused by the fracture.
Other treatment for vertebral fracture may include nonsurgical treatments, such as bracing or use of pain medications.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Your doctor may feel that the risks of these procedures are too great if you have:
If you have vertebral fracture due to osteoporosis, vertebroplasty may not be as effective.
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as:
You will be asked to lie down on your stomach. X-ray cameras will be positioned around you. The cameras will show images of the bone. Your doctor will use this to verify the position of the needles and cement.
The skin over the fractured bone will be numbed and sterilized. A hollow needle will be passed into the vertebra. The acrylic cement will be mixed into a toothpaste-like consistency. An added substance, called barium, will improve the images. When the needle position is ideal, the cement will be injected into the fractured bone. The doctor will watch the cement as it enters the bone to check for leaks.
Your doctor will begin by making a small incision in your back. A tiny drill will be used to create an opening in the bone. A special balloon will be passed through. The balloon will be inflated to open the space and correct the deformity. After the balloon is removed, acrylic cement will be injected into the cavity. This will help to maintain the correction.
You may have a CT scan to confirm the position of the cement. You will stay on your stomach for about 10-20 minutes. This will allow the cement to harden. You will then be moved to a recovery room. You will be asked to lie on your back for another hour or so.
You may feel some initial pain due to lying on your stomach. Many notice immediate and significant relief from pain.
You will usually only need to stay in the hospital for a few hours. You may need to stay longer if you have any complications.
You will be monitored for a few hours for any complications.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:
You may notice some discomfort at the site of the needle insertion or the tiny incision. This is often relieved through the use of an ice pack (use only for 15 minutes per hour).
Acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also help. You may also be given medication to prevent muscle spasm.
It is important to monitor your recovery. Alert your doctor to any problems. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Radiology
American Society of Neuroradiology
Radiology Info—Radiological Society of North America
Kyphoplasty. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/orthopaedic/kyphoplasty_135,36. Accessed May 17, 2017.
Predey TA, Sewall LE, et al. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: New treatment for vertebral compression fractures. Am Fam Physician. 2002; 6: 611-615.
Thoracolumbar vertebral compression fracture. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114371/Thoracolumbar-vertebral-compression-fracture. Updated November 4, 2014. Accessed May 17, 2017.
Vertebroplasty. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/orthopaedic/vertebroplasty_135,37. Accessed May 17, 2017.
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Radiological Society of North America Radiology Info website. Available at: http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=vertebro. Accessed May 17, 2017.
Vertebroplasty for spine fracture pain. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/procedures-devices/vertebroplasty-for-spine-fracture-pain.html. Updated: May 2014. Accessed May 17, 2017.
11/9/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com: Buchbinder R, Osborne RH, et al. A randomized trial of vertebroplasty for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(6):557-568.
6/3/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com: Mills E, Eyawo O, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
Last reviewed May 2017 by Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.