An animal bite is a wound caused by the teeth of an animal. The teeth puncture, tear, scratch, bruise, or crush the tissue. The injury can damage skin, nerves, bone, muscle, blood vessels, or joints.
Most bites occur when an animal has been provoked. Animals with rabies bite without being provoked.
Most bites occur in children and young adults. Males are affected more often than females. Bites happen more frequently in warmer weather.
Symptoms of a bite include pain and bleeding.
Wounds may become infected because of the bacteria normally found in the animal's mouth or a systemic infection of the animal, such as rabies. Wounds may also become infected from microbes on the skin or in the environment.
Symptoms of infection include:
The doctor will ask about how the bite occurred, the animal that bit you, and your medical history. The doctor will examine the wound and assess damage to any nearby muscles, tendons, nerves, or bones. If the wound appears infected, the doctor may use a sterile swab to remove a sample for testing.
Other tests may include:
The goal of treatment is to promote healing, decrease the risk of infection, and prevent complications. If your dog bit you and it has had all its vaccinations, you may be able to treat a minor wound yourself. However, call your provider for medical advice. Receiving medical care within the first 24 hours decreases the chance of infection.
Seek medical care in these situations:
Regardless of the severity of the bite, see a doctor if you have a chronic medical condition, such as:
Your doctor can clean the wound, washing the tissue with large amounts of fluid. Debris and dead tissue can be removed. The wound may or may not be closed with stitches. It often is kept open to decrease the risk of infection. After 24 hours, the doctor may use adhesive strips to bring the edges of the wound closer together. Antibiotics may be ordered and a tetanus shot may be given.
Be sure to tell your doctor as much as you can about the animal that bit you and the circumstances surrounding the incident. If the identity of the animal is unknown and it cannot be monitored for rabies, you may need to receive treatment to prevent this life-threatening disease.
Be aware that most animal bites are from dogs. Dog owners are most likely to be bitten by their own dog. To help reduce your chance of an animal bite:
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
The American Veterinary Medical Association
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
Cat and dog bites. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/pets-animals/cat-and-dog-bites.html. Updated Updated April 2014. Accessed October 29, 2014.
Mammalian bite. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116837/Mammalian-bite. Updated September 29, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2016.
Wunner WH, Briggs DJ. Rabies in the 21st century. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(3):e591.
Last reviewed November 2015 by David L. Horn, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.