A brain tumor is the presence of cancer cells in the brain.
There are 2 main types of brain tumors:
Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. If cells divide uncontrollably, they form a mass of tissue. The mass is called a growth or tumor. The term cancer usually refers to malignant tumors. These can invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor does not spread. But, it can continue to grow and press structures near it, causing symptoms.
The cause of most primary brain tumors is unknown, but it is probably a combination of genetics and environment. Secondary brain tumors are caused by cancer that spreads to the brain from another site in the body.
Factors that increase your chance of a brain tumor include:
Any cancer in the body can spread to the brain. The most common tumors that may spread to the brain include:
Symptoms depend on the tumor's size and location. A growing tumor will often have fluid build-up around it. This is called edema. Edema puts pressure on the brain. Symptoms may develop gradually or rapidly.
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You will have a neurological exam. It will test muscle strength, coordination, reflexes, response to external actions, and alertness. The doctor may also look into your eyes to check for signs of brain swelling.
Images of your bodily structures may need to be taken. This can be done with:
A sample of brain tissue may need to be removed for testing. This can be done with:
There are many different types of brain tumors. The doctor will classify the type. The type of brain tumor is important to determine the treatment approach.
Treatment depends on the type, size, location of the cancer, and your overall health. Treatments may leave you with physical or mental limitations.
Before beginning treatment, you may take medications, including:
Surgical procedures include:
Radiation therapy uses radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. This is a common treatment for brain tumors. Radiation may be:
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given in many forms, including pill, injection, or through a tube called a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells. It may also be delivered directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, which bathes the brain tissue. This form of chemotherapy is called intrathecal. This is most often used when cancer has spread from elsewhere in the body to the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Rehabilitation therapy includes:
American Brain Tumor Association
American Cancer Society
Canadian Cancer Society
Cancer Care Ontario
Astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 9, 2014. Accessed September 5, 2014.
Brain cancer—for patients. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/brain. Accessed September 5, 2014.
Brain tumors. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Brain%20Tumors.aspx. Updated June 2012. Accessed September 5, 2014.
5/28/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Tremont-Lukats IW, Ratilal BO, Armstrong T, Gilbert MR. Antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures in people with brain tumors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):CD004424
Last reviewed September 2015 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.