Impetigo is a skin infection. It often appears as blisters around the mouth and nose but it can infect skin anywhere on the body. Impetigo can easily spread from one person to another. This infection occurs most often in children.
Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The most common type of bacteria associated with this infection includes:
These types of bacteria are normally found on the skin and in the nose. The bacteria do not cause trouble until it gets under the skin. Bacteria get in under the skin through small cuts, scratches, or insect bites.
Factors that increase your chance for impetigo include:
Symptoms of impetigo appear 4-10 days after contact with the bacteria.
The main signs of impetigo are skin lesions. They occur most often on the face, arms, or legs but can appear anywhere on the body. The lesions may be red spots, sores, or blisters. The lesion may:
There may also be swollen lymph nodes in the area with more serious infections.
Impetigo is normally a fairly mild condition. However, further problems could develop if it is not treated. The infection could spread. This can lead to pain, swelling, pus, or fever. Rarely, impetigo that is caused by Group A Streptococcus may develop into:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. The skin lesions will be examined. Your doctor will be able to diagnose impetigo by the look of your skin lesions.
Your doctor may test a sample of the infected skin. This will show what specific bacteria are causing the infection. It may help to guide treatment choices.
The goals of treatment are to relieve the symptoms and cure the infection.
Treatment may include:
Antibiotics are a type of medicine that can fight bacteria. For a mild infection, your doctor may recommend:
Your doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics for more severe or widespread infections.
In some cases, staphylococcal infections (such as MRSA) may be resistant to these antibiotics. Others options may be needed.
Good skin care is important with this type of infection. It can help prevent the spread of the infection to other areas of your skin or to others. In general:
To help avoid spreading the infection:
Prevention of impetigo involves good personal hygiene. The following tips can help:
American Academy of Dermatology
Kid's Health for Parents
Canadian Dermatology Association
American Osteopathic Association website. Available at: http://www.osteopathic.org/osteopathic-health/about-your-health/health-conditions-library/general-health/Pages/impetigo.aspx. Accessed July 27, 2012
Impetigo. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated March 15, 2012. Accessed July 27, 2012.
Koning S, van der Wouden JC, et al. Efficacy and safety of retapamulin ointment as treatment of impetigo: randomized double-blind multicentre placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(5):1077-1082.
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene website. Available at: http://ideha.dhmh.md.gov/IDEHASharedDocuments/impetigo.pdf. Updated April 2008. Accessed July 27, 2012.
10/6/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hartman-Adams H, Banvard C. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Aug 15;90(4):229-235.
Last reviewed December 2013 by David L Horn, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.