An ingrown toenail happens when a portion of the toenail curves into the flesh of the toe. It imbeds itself in the soft tissue. It can occur on any of the toes. However, it usually occurs on one of the big toes.
The most common causes of an ingrown toenail are:
The main risk factor that increases your chances of having ingrown toenails is having family members with ingrown toenails.
Ingrown toenails often do not cause symptoms at first. Eventually, the following symptoms may develop:
In almost all cases, you or your doctor can diagnose an ingrown toenail based on the location and the symptoms. In rare cases, you may need an x-ray. For example, if your doctor suspects an infection may have spread to the toe bone.
You may be able to treat an ingrown toenail yourself if you catch it early. If the condition gets worse or does not improve, you will need to seek medical care. If you have diabetes, you must seek medical attention for any infection or wound involving your feet or toes.
Your doctor may recommend the following treatments :
If you repeatedly get ingrown toenails, or your ingrown toenail is severe, your doctor may:
To help prevent ingrown toenails:
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society
American Podiatric Medical Association
Calgary Foot Clinic
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association
Ingrown toenails. American Podiatric Medical Association website. Available at: http://www.apma.org/Learn/FootHealth.cfm?ItemNumber=1522. Accessed May 2, 2013.
Matsumoto K, Hashimoto I, et al. Resin splint as a new conservative treatment for ingrown toenails. J Med Invest. 2010;57(3-4):321-325.
The Merck Manual of Medical Information—Home Edition. Simon and Schuster, Inc.; 2000.
Roberts JR, et al. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 4th ed. Saunders; 2004.
Woo SH, Kim IH. Surgical pearl: nail edge separation with dental floss for ingrown toenails. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50(6):939-940.
Last reviewed May 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.