Infertility is not being able to conceive after a year of regular, unprotected sex. About one-third of infertility is caused by male factors and one-third are caused by female factors. In the remaining cases, the cause is unknown or is due to problems with both partners.
Men are considered infertile if they:
Portions of the brain called the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, as well as male reproductive organs such as the testes affect fertility in men. Problems in any of these areas may decrease fertility.
In about half of the cases, a cause cannot be found. Some factors that can contribute to infertility include:
Factors that may increase your chance of developing infertility include:
During the first visit, you and your partner will both be evaluated. You will be asked about your symptoms, medical history, and work history. Your doctor will look for potential exposure to certain chemicals. Your doctor will also look for physical problems that might cause infertility.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Other tests may include:
Treatment depends on what is causing the condition. Treatments can be costly and lengthy. They often are not covered by insurance.
Lifestyle changes may include:
Ask you doctor if a daily antioxidant supplement may help.
If you have a hormonal imbalance, your doctor may prescribe medication. Clomiphene citrate, for example, is an anti-estrogen drug. In combination with vitamin E, it may help increase sperm count and improve sperm movement.
Surgery is done for conditions like varicocele that can affect fertility. Treatment of a varicocele does not always restore fertility.
Surgery may also be done to reverse a vasectomy. This reversal is not always successful.
ART involves using human sperm and eggs or embryos in a lab to help with conception. The eggs and sperm can be from you and your partner or donated. ART methods include:
Infertility cannot always be prevented; however, the following steps may help:
American Society for Reproductive Medicine
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association
Men's Health Centre
I'm a guy; isn't this a woman's issue? Protect Your Fertility website. Available at: http://www.protectyourfertility.org/malerisks.html. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men. Updated February 26, 2016. Accessed September 28, 2016.
Jorgensen N, Carlsen E, Nermoen I, et al. East-West gradient in semen quality in the Nordic-Baltic area: a study of men from the general population in Denmark, Norway, Estonia and Finland. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2199.
Reproductive health and the workplace. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/repro. Updated June 10, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Swan SH, Brazil C, Drobnis EZ, et al. Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile US males. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:414.
9/2/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men: Ghanem H, Shaeer O, El-Segini A. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2009 Mar 5. [Epub ahead of print]
2/14/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men: Showell M, Brown J, Yazdani A, Stankiewicz M, Hart R. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD007411.
Last reviewed November 2015 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.