Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve in the heart. This valve is located between the upper chamber and the lower pumping chamber of the left side of the heart. Blood must flow from the atrium, through the mitral valve, and into the ventricle before being pumped out into the rest of the body. Mitral stenosis can result in poor blood flow between the two left chambers, which can affect how much blood and oxygen is getting to the body's organs and tissues.
The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever, which scars the mitral valve. Less commonly, there are some congenital heart defects which may affect the mitral valve and its function. Very rare causes include bacterial endocarditis, blood clots, tumors, or other growths that block blood flow through the mitral valve.
Mitral stenosis is more common in women, and most often appears in adults between the ages of 30 and 50 years old. Other factors that may increase your chance of mitral stenosis include:
Mitral stenosis may cause:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may be alerted to mitral stenosis by the following:
Imaging tests evaluate the heart and surrounding structures. These may include:
Your heart's electrical activity can be monitored with:
If you have mild mitral stenosis, your condition will need to be monitored, but you may not need immediate treatment for symptoms associated with mitral stenosis. When symptoms become more severe, you may need more aggressive treatment, which may include avoiding exertion and high-salt foods.
Although no longer routinely recommended, you may need to take antibiotics prior to some dental and medical procedures. This is to prevent heart infections. Ask your doctor if you will need to take antibiotics.
Treatment may include:
Drugs may be prescribed to treat specific symptoms associated with mitral stenosis. These medications include:
You may also need to take antibiotics when you have certain infections. This will help prevent further damage to your heart.
Common types of heart valve surgery include:
To reduce your chance of mitral stenosis or its complications:
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Antibiotic prophylaxis for heart patients. Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/a/premedication-or-antibiotics. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Infective endocarditis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113919/Infective-endocarditis. Updated August 9, 2017. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Fauci AS, Braunwald E, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2000.
Mitral stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115920/Mitral-stenosis. Updated May 31, 2017. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Shipton B and Wahba H. Valvular heart disease: review and update. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63(11):2201-2208.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.