Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes tumors in the nervous system. Tumors develop in the nerves or the tissue that surrounds the nerves, called the myelin sheath. Neurofibromatosis is divided into 3 types, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis. The type is determined by the specific genes that are affected.
This articles discusses NF1, the most common neurofibromatosis. It affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, called peripheral nerves.
NF is caused by a change in a specific gene. The gene normally makes proteins that help control growth in the nerves. Since the gene is defective, these proteins are not able to control growth, and tumors develop.
In many cases, the abnormal gene is inherited from a parent. A person with the inherited form of NF has a 50% chance of passing the abnormal gene to each child. Any parents, children, and siblings of an affected individual should be considered at risk for NF. However, the gene change can occur in a person with no family history of NF.
Most symptoms begin between birth and age 10. NF1 may cause:
Other medical conditions that are associated with NF1 include:
You will be asked about your medical and family medical history. A physical exam will be done. It may take a few years before NF1 is diagnosed. NF1 may be suspected if there is a history of:
Images may be taken of your nerves and brain. This can be done with an MRI scan. Samples of tumors may also be removed and sent for a biopsy.
Genetic testing may be recommended for families with a history of neurofibromatosis. Prenatal diagnosis may also be possible with amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.
You may be referred to specialists to look for signs of tumors of the nervous system.
There are no current treatments to stop these tumors from growing. Treatment may not be needed since these tumors are rarely cancerous, grow slowly, and may not cause problems. Regular exams are recommended to check for new tumors or symptoms.
Treatment may be needed to control symptoms. Surgery may be done to remove painful or disfiguring tumors. Medications and therapies may also be needed to manage other symptoms such as seizures and learning disabilities.
Children's Tumor Foundation
The British Columbia Neurofibromatosis Foundation
Neurofibromatosis. Children's Tumor Foundation website. Available at: http://www.ctf.org/Learn-About-NF/Learn-About-NF.html. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Neurofibromatosis type 1. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116711/Neurofibromatosis-type-1. Updated December 21, 2015. Accessed September 26, 2016.
Neurofibromatosis (N1, N2). Your Genes Your Health website. Available at: http://www.yourgenesyourhealth.org/nf/whatisit.htm. Accessed March 10, 2016.
NINDS neurofibromatosis information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/neurofibromatosis/detail_neurofibromatosis.htm. Updated February 3, 2016. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.