Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are serious illnesses. They occur most often in developing countries where sanitation is poor.
Typhoid fever is caused by eating foods or drinking beverages contaminated with the Salmonella bacteria. Contamination can be present in:
Factors that increase your risk of typhoid fever include:
Symptoms may include:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Typhoid fever is usually diagnosed with a blood culture.
Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.
Typhoid fever spreads easily until it is treated. In a small number of cases, people may become typhoid carriers even after the illness has passed. People who are chronic carriers can shed the contagious bacteria in their stool or urine. This condition can be treated with antibiotics or, in unusual cases, surgery to remove the gall bladder.
Your doctor may also recommend medication to help reduce the fever. In general, rest and drink plenty of fluids.
There are two main ways to prevent typhoid fever:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
World Health Organization
Public Health Agency of Canada
Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005 Aug 27-Sep 2;366(9487):749-62.
Bui YG, Trépanier S, et al. Cases of Malaria, Hepatitis A, and Typhoid Fever Among VFRs, Quebec (Canada). J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):373-378.
Johnson KJ, Gallagher NM, et al. From the CDC: New Country-Specific Recommendations for Pre-Travel Typhoid Vaccination. J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):430-433.
Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever/. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed June 19, 2014.
Typhoid fever. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 14, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.
Typhoid vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/typhoid.html. Updated May 29, 2012. Accessed June 19, 2014.
Last reviewed June 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.