Islet cells are the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor to another person. The procedure is being studied as a method to treat select people with chronic, uncontrolled type 1 (and some type 2) diabetes.
Pancreatic islet cells are made up of alpha and beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. They are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Without these cells, the body is unable to make insulin. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections.
Transplants are most commonly used for persons with recurrent severe hypoglycemia without symptoms and/or those who have very difficult to control blood sugars.
The transplant reduces, or even may eliminate, the need for self-injection.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications, such as:
A review board will determine if you will be eligible for a transplant. Once on the transplant list, one may have to wait months or years for a suitable donor.
Your doctor will order blood tests. A physical exam will be done. These tests will assess the extent and severity of diabetic complications. This includes damage to the kidneys.
You and the donor will be carefully screened by blood and serum to optimize a match. The better the match, the less chance for islet rejection.
Local or general anesthesia may be used. Local anesthesia will numb the area. You will be asleep with general anesthesia.
Pancreas islet cell transplantation is a complicated procedure and requires special expertise in select medical centers. The cells are delicate, difficult to isolate, and may fail even in the best of circumstances.
Before the procedure, islet cells are removed from a donor pancreas. They are purified before being injected in to the patient.
A small incision will be made in the abdomen. A small plastic tube will be placed through the incision and into a major blood vessel of the liver. An ultrasound will be used to locate the right position. Islets cells will be injected through the tube. The cells travel through the vein and attach to the liver. When successful, they will begin making insulin.
Your blood glucose will be controlled with insulin immediately following transplantation. It will take time for new blood vessels to form and insulin to be produced
Your immune system may attack the transferred cells. To prevent this type of attack, called rejection, you will be given medications to suppress your immune system.
Similar medications to suppress the immune system are usually needed for the rest of the person’s life to prevent rejection.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
Your doctor may repeat the process several times to transfer more islet cells.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection, such as:
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chance of infection, such as:
It is important for you to monitor your recovery after you leave the hospital. Alert your doctor to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Surgeons
American Diabetes Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
Ahearn A, Parekh J, Posselt A. Islet transplantation for Type 1 diabetes: where are we now? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;11(1):59-68.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116244/Diabetes-mellitus-type-1. Updated August 29, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017.
Islet Transplant for Type 1 Diabetes. University of California San Francisco website. Available at: http://transplant.surgery.ucsf.edu/. Accessed August 29, 2017.
Leitao CB, Cure P, Tharavanij T, Baidal DA, Alejandro R. Current challenges in islet transplantation. Curr Diab Rep. 2008;8(4):324-331.
Pancreatic Islet transplantation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/insulin-medicines-treatments/pancreatic-islet-transplantation. Updated September 2013. Accessed September 19, 2017.
6/3/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116244/Diabetes-mellitus-type-1: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.